Wellbeing indicators

photo-icon Morgan Sette

Living in Adelaide isn't about just loving one aspect of this beautiful city, it's about the whole package and the wonderful balance of health, wellbeing, practicality and festivity that this gorgeous town not only promotes, but actively supports” Amy, resident.

The City of Adelaide Wellbeing Indicators is a set of wholistic population-level indicators that will help inform Council’s work and priorities. The wellbeing categories have been chosen following review of the many wellbeing models and measurement frameworks used nationally and internationally.

The indicators are aligned to the community outcomes and key actions in Council’s Strategic Plan 2020 – 2024 and Wellbeing Plan 2020 – 2025. The data sources have been chosen to be able to show trends over time, helping to inform Council about the impact of initiatives targeted at particular outcomes. Much of the data has been sourced from Council’s own Resident Surveys with a robust sample, providing confidence in the reliability and validity of the data, and allowing the data to be updated regularly.

Wellbeing dashboard


Physical health is an important aspect of overall wellbeing. Preventing and managing risk factors for chronic conditions such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure and being overweight contributes to a healthy community.

The City of Adelaide works with other levels of government to encourage residents to look after their health and seek appropriate healthcare when needed.


Self-assessed general health

Self-reported health status is commonly used as a general indicator of health and wellbeing, revealing insight into a person’s perception of their own health at a point in time.

42% of residents assess their own health as being excellent or very good.

This is the first time this data has been gathered and will be used as the benchmark for future years.

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Cholesterol

High cholesterol is a key risk factor for chronic health conditions such as cardiovascular disease.

20.6% of residents have high cholesterol.

Due to changes in survey methodology data from previous years is not comparable and this data for 2018 – 2020 will be the baseline for future data reporting.

Source: Wellbeing SA (2020) City of Adelaide Health Indicators Report: SAPHS October 2018 – September 2020, Wellbeing SA, accessed November 2020.


Hypertension (high blood pressure)

High blood pressure is a key risk factor for chronic health conditions such as stroke, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease.

18.1% of residents have high blood pressure.

Due to changes in survey methodology data from previous years is not comparable and this data for 2018 – 2020 will be the baseline for future data reporting.

Source: Wellbeing SA (2020) City of Adelaide Health Indicators Report: SAPHS October 2018 – September 2020, Wellbeing SA, accessed November 2020.


Overweight or obese

Being overweight or obese refers to excess bodyweight and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, psychological issues and some cancers.

46.6% of residents are overweight or obese.

Due to changes in survey methodology data from previous years is not comparable and this data for 2018 – 2020 will be the baseline for future data reporting.

Source: Wellbeing SA (2020) City of Adelaide Health Indicators Report: SAPHS October 2018 – September 2020, Wellbeing SA, accessed November 2020

Health-related behaviour and lifestyle choices have a significant influence on people’s physical and psychological wellbeing.

The City of Adelaide supports healthy behaviour through a range of initiatives including a grants program to deliver fitness activities, facilities and infrastructure such as the Adelaide Aquatic Centre, golf course, walking/running/cycling trails and courts and exercise equipment. Annually during National Nutrition Week, activities and events are run to help inform and educate the community on healthy eating. The City of Adelaide also maintains and activates the Park Lands and squares, encouraging the community to spend time in green space and connect with nature. A childhood immunisation program is facilitated through the Council’s community centres.


Physical activity

Physical activity is one of the most important lifestyle factors impacting our health and wellbeing. It is not only good for people’s physical health, reducing instances of many chronic health conditions, it is also good for mental wellbeing.

51% of residents meet the recommended minimum physical activity requirements of 150 mins per week.

↑ The percentage of residents meeting the recommended physical activity requirements has increased since 2019 (45.3%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Vegetable consumption

Eating a balanced diet is important for maintaining good health and wellbeing. Vegetables and fruit provide essential nutrients and contribute to the prevention of some chronic health conditions. Current Government recommendations are for adults to eat five serves of vegetables per day.

10% of residents are eating the recommended daily serves of vegetables.

The percentage of residents eating the recommended serves of vegetables has remained stable since 2019 (11.4%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Sleep

Adequate, good quality sleep is important for positive health and wellbeing. A lack of sleep impacts on people’s concentration, memory and mood. Regular insufficient sleep contributes to health conditions such as obesity, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and poor mental health.

58% of residents are getting the recommended amount of sleep of between seven and nine hours per night.

↑ The percentage of residents getting adequate sleep has increased slightly since 2019 (55.1%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Active transport

Incidental physical activity such as walking or cycling for transport is one way people can increase their daily physical activity.

46.5% of residents walk or cycle to work, with walking (37%) being significantly more popular than riding (9.5%).

This is the first time this data has been gathered and will be used as the benchmark for future years.

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Park Lands use

Studies have shown that time spent in green spaces is linked with enhanced psychological wellbeing.

77.5% of residents are frequent visitors to the Park Lands, visiting at least once or twice a week.

↑ The percentage of residents visiting the Park Lands frequently has increased since 2019 (72.1%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Childhood immunisation

Immunisation against communicable diseases is an important way of protecting a community’s health and wellbeing.

86.7% of children resident in the City of Adelaide aged five years old are fully immunised.

↑ Rates of childhood immunisation have increased slightly since 2018 (84.4%).

Source: Government of South Australia (2020) Local Government Area coverage rate summaries by year, 2019 January to DecemberGovernment of South Australia, accessed 28 October 2020.

Personal wellbeing refers to how satisfied people are with their lives, their sense of what they do in life is worthwhile, day to day emotional experience and wider mental wellbeing.

City of Adelaide supports personal wellbeing by providing opportunities to engage in meaningful activities such as volunteering, lifelong learning through libraries, and engagement in arts and culture.


Life satisfaction

Life satisfaction assesses the evaluative aspect of personal wellbeing; how people feel their life is going overall.

77.9% of residents report their life satisfaction as being very high to high.

↑ Rates of high life satisfaction have increased slightly since 2019 (75%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Meaning and purpose

How worthwhile people feel the things they do are, assesses eudemonic personal wellbeing; reflecting on their sense of meaning and purpose, sense of control and whether they feel they are part of something bigger than themselves.

80% of residents report a very high or high sense that the things they do are worthwhile.

↑ Rates of high meaning and purpose have increased slightly since 2019 (77.5%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Happiness

How happy people feel over a short timeframe assesses day to day emotional experience, which is one aspect helping to understand personal wellbeing.

78% of residents reported very high or high levels of happiness yesterday.

↑ The percentage of residents experiencing very high or high levels of happiness have increased since 2019 (72.4%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Anxiety

How anxious people feel over a short timeframe assesses day to day emotional experience, which is one aspect helping to understand personal wellbeing.

56.1% of residents reported feeling very low or low levels of anxiety yesterday.

The percentage of residents experiencing very low or low levels of anxiety has remained stable since 2019 (56.4%)

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Psychological distress

Psychological distress is a broad indicator of people’s mental and emotional wellbeing, providing insight into how people are coping with personal and community stressors. It is not an indicator of diagnosable mental illness.

15.5% of residents reported very high to high levels of psychological distress.

Due to changes in survey methodology data from previous years is not comparable and this data for 2018 – 2020 will be the baseline for future data reporting.

Source: Wellbeing SA (2020) City of Adelaide Health Indicators Report: SAPHS October 2018 – September 2020, Wellbeing SA, accessed November 2020.

Social connection and engagement with your local community is important for emotional and psychological wellbeing.

The City of Adelaide supports people to connect with other individuals and their community through a range of community centre and library programs, community events and grants.


Social support

Having support from family, friends and neighbours assists people to manage and overcome challenges; supporting emotional and psychological wellbeing.

84% of residents reported they can get support from family, friends or neighbours when needed.

 The percentage of residents who report they can access support has decreased slightly since 2019 (87%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Community connection

Feeling connected to your local community and having a sense of belonging is important for promoting positive personal wellbeing.

58% of residents reported feeling connected to their local community.

The percentage of residents reporting feeling connected has remained relatively stable since 2019 (59.8%)

Source: City of Adelaide (2019) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Community engagement

Being engaged in activities linked to the local community helps promote connection and a sense of belonging, as well as contributing to people’s personal sense of meaning and purpose.

91% of residents reported engaging in a local activity in the previous three months in 2019.

Data on this indicator was not collected in 2020 and will be included again in the next Resident Survey.

Source: City of Adelaide (2019) Resident Survey 2019, City of Adelaide.


Volunteering

Volunteering not only offers an opportunity for people to ‘give back’ to their community and engage in a meaningful activity, it is also a great way to meet likeminded people, all of which support positive wellbeing.

48.1% of residents reported having volunteered for an organisation in the previous three months in 2019.

Data on this indicator was not collected in 2020 and will be included again in the next Resident Survey.

Source: City of Adelaide (2019) Resident Survey 2019, City of Adelaide.


Creativity & Diversity of cultural expression

Engagement with arts, culture and creative pursuits enriches people’s lives, stimulating lifelong learning, exposure to new ideas and different perspectives which can have a positive impact on personal wellbeing. Art and culture also allows people to share their experiences, culture and interests, providing the opportunity to better understand each other and enhance community cohesion.

The impact of City of Adelaide’s cultural activities on the people who participated in Library programs and events, strategic cultural partnerships and key creative projects provides insights into:

The degree to which the activity stimulates imagination, creativity and curiosity and an increased desire to participate more or create new works 8.8/10

The degree to which the activity increases appreciation of different forms of cultural expression 8.6/10

2018/19 was the first time this data was collected.

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Dynamic City: Arts & Culture Dashboard, City of Adelaide, accessed 25 November 2020.

The physical environment in which people live has both direct and indirect impacts on health and personal wellbeing. By managing waste and resources responsibly through recycling and composting Council helps support a healthy, sustainable environment. Initiatives responding to climate change through reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the impacts of a warming climate through greening maintains the liveability of the city.


Waste

High levels of waste generation and waste going to landfill is a worldwide environmental issue. Diversion from landfill refers to household waste that is put in the recycling bin or green organics bin for composting.

53.6% of residential kerbside waste in the City of Adelaide was diverted from landfill in the 2019 audit.

2019 was the first time this data was collected.

Source: City of Adelaide (2019) City of Adelaide Audits 2019: Residential, commercial, multi-unit dwellings and public places audits, Rawtec for the City of Adelaide.


Greenhouse gas emissions

The level of greenhouse gas emissions is a key environmental indicator, contributing to a warming climate, impacting the liveability of cities across the world, including Adelaide.

City-wide greenhouse gas emissions were 979,211 tonnes CO2e in 2017/18.

This is down from 1,148,108 tonnes CO2e in the baseline year 2006/07.

Source: City of Adelaide (2019) Carbon Neutral Adelaide Status Report July 2019, City of Adelaide.


Heat

High levels of heat in our immediate environment can have direct adverse impacts on our health with prolonged exposure leading to heat exhaustion or heat stroke. Heat in the areas where we live also have indirect health and wellbeing impacts; making us less likely to engage in physical activity or activities outside the home that promote social connection.

In 2018 City of Adelaide had 67 daytime heat islands 6 extreme heat islands 39 night time heat islands

*An urban heat island is an area larger than 125m2 where the surface temperature is between 2oC and 4oC above the average surrounding surfaces. If the surface temperature is over 4oC above the average surrounding surface, this is an extreme urban heat island.

Source: Seed Consulting (2018), Collaborative Heat Mapping for Eastern and Northern Adelaide: Project report, Nov 2018, Seed Consulting for Eastern Region Alliance of Councils, the City of Salisbury, and the Adelaide Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Board.


Greening

Tree canopy coverage is one important way cities can mitigate the impacts on people of a warming climate. Tree canopy provides shade and trees and plants create a cooling effect.

In 2018/19 the City of Adelaide had 25.3% tree coverage greater than 3m in height.

Source: S.J. Holt (2020) LIDAR derived tree canopy cover metrics across Adelaide, South Australia – Report 1 – Local Government Areas, Aerometrex Ltd

A sense of community and place is supported by having a safe and welcoming physical and social environment that encourages community connection and cohesion, benefitting the health and wellbeing of community members.

The City of Adelaide encourages safe and welcoming environments for everyone through community safety initiatives, a focus on access and inclusion and cultural inclusion, including reconciliation.


Crime

Offences against the person pose a direct health and safety risk to people. Victims of crimes against the person such as assault may experience physical injury and/or psychological trauma.

881 crimes against the person were reported in the City of Adelaide Local Government Area in 2019/20.

↓ This is a notable reduction from the 934 reported incidents in 2018/19.

Source: South Australian Police (2020) Suburb-based crime statistics for crimes against the person and crimes against property 2019 -20, South Australian Police,accessed 2 November 2020.


Perceptions of safety

Equally important to actual crime statistics are people’s perceptions of safety. Even in areas of low crime if people do not feel safe, this can directly impact on personal wellbeing through increased fear and anxiety, and indirectly by reducing people’s willingness to be out in the community.

89% of residents agree the city has public spaces they feel safe to use.

This is the first time this data has been gathered and will be used as the benchmark for future years.

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.


Accessibility

Having an accessible environment is important for ensuring all people receive the services they need and actively engage in all aspects of life.

78% of residents report their local community is very or somewhat accessible.

↓ The percentage of residents who believe their local community is accessible has decreased slightly since 2019 (81.7%).

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.

Welcoming of diversity

Social inclusion refers to communities where all people are valued, and differences are respected. Inclusive communities encourage people to express their views and be proud of their identity and foster support for each other and sense of belonging.

77% of residents agree their community is welcoming of diverse cultures.

This is the first time this data has been gathered and will be used as the benchmark for future years.

Source: City of Adelaide (2020) Resident Survey 2020, City of Adelaide.

The influence of the circumstances in which people grow, live, work and age on health and wellbeing are now well recognised and are known as the social determinants of health.

Many of the social determinants of health are outside the direct sphere of influence of local government, however the City of Adelaide works to influence these things through supporting businesses for a strong local economy that supports employment and working with partners to address homelessness.


Low income

Low income is one socioeconomic factor known to influence people’s health and wellbeing. People on lower incomes tend to have poorer health and wellbeing outcomes, particularly when combined with other factors such as low education attainment or unemployment.

31.1% of households are in the lowest income quartile.

The percentage of households in the lowest income quartile has remained stable since the 2011 Census (30.2%).

Source: ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics), Australian Census 2016—Low income households, ABS, accessed 27 October 2020. 


Unemployment

The health and wellbeing impacts of unemployment are related not only to lower income but to psychosocial stress leading to poorer health and mental health outcomes.

Unemployment in the City of Adelaide was 8.3% in the June quarter 2020.

The unemployment rate has increased since the same quarter in 2019 (7.2%).

Whilst the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is partially reflected in this data, for a number of reasons care should be taken when interpreting the results with further information available on the Labour Market Information Portal.

Source: Australian Government (2020) SALM LGA Data Tables for the June Quarter 2020, Labour Market Information Portal, accessed 1 December 2020.


Housing

Insecure, unaffordable or unsuitable housing has negative impacts on individuals and families and can impede participation in other activities important for good health and wellbeing such as employment, education and community engagement. Social housing provides a safety net for people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage.

In the City of Adelaide 44.9% of households rent privately, 33.5% own or are purchasing their home and 7.6% rent social housing.

Of residents purchasing their own home 9.9% are experiencing mortgage stress and 34.5% of renters are experiencing rental stress*.

↑ The percentage of residents experiencing mortgage stress (8.5%) or rental stress (30.7%) has increased since the 2011 Census.

*rental/mortgage stress is defined as lowest 40% of incomes paying more than 30% of income on housing

Sources:

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2016) Australian Census 2016—Housing tenure, ABS, accessed 27 October 2020. 

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2016) Australian Census 2016—Population density, ABS, accessed 27 October 2020.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2016) Australian Census 2016—Rental stress, ABS, accessed 27 October 2020.


Homelessness

Homelessness has a direct impact on health and wellbeing related to safety, exposure to extreme weather and psychological stress. It is also a significant barrier to participating in education, employment and community engagement.

In October 2020 there were 198 people actively homeless on the Adelaide Zero Project By-Name List*.

This is down from the 214 people on the By-Name List in September 2020.

The average monthly housing placement rate in October 2020 was 38 placements, down from 40 in September**.

*Actively homeless means anyone who is currently sleeping rough or was sleeping rough and is temporarily sheltered.

**The average number of people permanently housed each month is calculated over the previous six months.

Source: Don Dunstan Foundation (2020) Adelaide Zero Project Dashboard, Don Dunstan Foundation, accessed 26 November 2020.

People. The heart of our city.